The “Dual Sources Account,” Predestination, and the Problem of Hell


  • Adam Noel Wood Wheaton College



hell, Dual Sources Account, free will


W. Matthews Grant's "Dual Sources Account" aims at explaining how God causes all creaturely actions while leaving them free in a robust libertarian sense. It includes an account of predestination that is supposed to allow for the possibility that some created persons ultimately spend eternity in hell. I argue here that the resources Grant provides for understanding why God might permit created persons to end up in hell are, for two different reasons, insufficient. I then provide possible solutions to these two problems, compatible with Grant's account overall, that help show why God might allow hell.

Author Biography

Adam Noel Wood, Wheaton College

Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy


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How to Cite

Wood, Adam Noel. 2021. “The ‘Dual Sources Account,’ Predestination, and the Problem of Hell”. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 13 (1):103-27.



Research Articles