The “Dual Sources Account,” Predestination, and the Problem of Hell
Keywords:hell, Dual Sources Account, free will
W. Matthews Grant's "Dual Sources Account" aims at explaining how God causes all creaturely actions while leaving them free in a robust libertarian sense. It includes an account of predestination that is supposed to allow for the possibility that some created persons ultimately spend eternity in hell. I argue here that the resources Grant provides for understanding why God might permit created persons to end up in hell are, for two different reasons, insufficient. I then provide possible solutions to these two problems, compatible with Grant's account overall, that help show why God might allow hell.
Marilyn McCord Adams, "Plantinga on 'Felix Culpa': Analysis and Critique," Faith and Philosophy 25.2 (2008): 123–40.
Andrei Buckareff and Allen Plug, "Escaping Hell: Divine Motivation and the Problem of Hell," Religious Studies 41.1 (2005): 39–54.
Taylor Cyr and Matthew Flummer, "Free Will, Grace and Anti-Pelagianism," International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 83.2 (2018): 183–199.
Peter Furlong, "Is God the Cause of Sin? An Examination of the Unadorned Privation Defense," Faith and Philosophy 31.4 (2014): 422–34.
W. Matthews Grant, "Can a Libertarian Hold That Our Free Acts Are Caused By God?" Faith and Philosophy 27.1 (2010): 22–44
W. Matthews Grant, "The Privation Account of Moral Evil: A Defense," International Philosophical Quarterly 55.3 (2015): 271–86
W. Matthews Grant, "The Privation Solution: A Reply to Furlong," Faith and Philosophy 33.2 (2016): 223–34.
W. Matthews Grant "Moral Evil, Privation, and God," European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 9.1 (2017): 125–45.
Matthew J. Hart, "Calvinism and the Problem of Hell," in Calvinism and the Problem of Evil, ed. Johnson and David Alexander (Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, 2016), 248–72.
Daniel M. Johnson, "Calvinism and the Problem of Evil: A Map of the Territory," in Calvinism and the Problem of Evil, ed. Johnson and David Alexander (Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, 2016).
Robert Kane, The Significance of Free Will (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).
Simon Kittle, "Grace and Free Will: Quiescence and Control," Journal of Analytic Theology 3 (2015): 89–108.
Michael J. Murray, "Coercion and the Hiddenness of God," American Philosophical Quarterly 30.1 (1993): 27–38.
Alvin Plantinga, "Supralapsarianlism, or, 'O Felix Culpa'," in Christian Faith and the Problem of Evil, ed. Peter Van Inwagen (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmanas, 2004).
Eleonore Stump, "The Problem of Evil," Faith and Philosophy 2.4 (1985): 392–423.
Eleonore Stump, "Dante's Hell, Aquinas's Moral Theory, and the Love of God," The Canadian Journal of Philosophy 16.2 (1986): 181–98.
Eleonore Stump, "Sanctification, Hardening of the Heart and Frankfurt's Concept of Free Will," The Journal of Philosophy 85.8 (1988): 395–420.
Eleonore Stump, Aquinas (London: Routledge, 2003).
Eleonore Stump, Wandering in Darkness: Narrative and the Problem of Suffering (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012).
Richard Swinburne, "Natural Evil," American Philosophical Quarterly 15.4 (1978), 295–301.
Richard Swinburne, Is There a God? (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996).