Aquinas on the Existence of the Future: A Response to Gili


  • Damiano Costa Università della Svizzera Italiana



I defend my paper “Aquinas, Geach, and Existence”[1]against objections from Luca Gili, who argued that, according to Aquinas, future contingents do not enjoy genuine existence but exist in God’s mind only.

[1] Damiano Costa, “Aquinas, Geach, and existence”, European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11, no. 3 (2019).


Aquinas, Thomas. 1856. Scriptum Super Sententiis. Edited by Roberto Busa. Parma:

—. 1920. Summa theologiae, tr. by the Fathers of the English Dominican Province, second and revised edition. London: Oates and Washbourne.

—. 1953. Quaestiones Disputate De Malo. Textum Taurini 1953 Editum.

Correia, Fabrice, and Sven Rosenkranz. 2020. “Temporal Existence and Temporal Location”. Philosophical Studies 177, no. 7: 1999–2011. doi:10.1007/s11098–019–01295-z.

Costa, Damiano. 2019. “Aquinas, Geach, and existence”. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11, no. 3: 175–95. doi:10.24204/ejpr.v11i3.2837.

Craig, William L. 1985. “Was Thomas Aquinas a B-Theorist of Time?”. New Scholasticism 59, no. 4: 475–83. doi:10.5840/newscholas19855946.

Gili, Luca. 2020. “Aquinas on Predication and Future Contingents: A Reply to Costa”. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12, no. 3. doi:10.24204/ejpr.v11i3.2837

Goris, Harm. 1997. Free Creatures of an Eternal God: Thomas Aquinas on God’s Infallible Foreknowledge and Irresistible Will. Nijmegan: Thomas Instituut te Utrecht.

Kenny, Anthony. 2002. Aquinas on Being. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Leftow, Brian. 1990. “Aquinas on Time and Eternity”. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 64, no. 3: 387–99. doi:10.5840/acpq199064315.

Lewis, Delmas. 1988. “Eternity, Time and Timelessness”. Faith and Philosophy 5, no. 1: 72–86. doi:10.5840/faithphil1988514.

Marenbon, John. 2005. Le Temps, l’Éternité et la Prescience de Boèce à Thomas d’Aquin. Paris: Vrin.

Shanley, Brian J. 1997. “Eternal Knowledge of the Temporal in Aquinas”. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 71, no. 2: 197–224. doi:10.5840/acpq199771244.

Ventimiglia, Giovanni. 2018. “Aquinas on Being: One, Two or Three Senses of Being?”. Quaestio 18: 509–38. doi:10.1484/J.QUAESTIO.5.118132.




How to Cite

Costa, Damiano. 2020. “Aquinas on the Existence of the Future: A Response to Gili”. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (3):225-35.