Does God Intend that Sin Occur? We Affirm




God, predestination, Kamm, actus reus, intention, evil, sin, Calvinism, Arminianism, free will, freedom, double effect, determinism


In this paper we discuss the question whether God intends that sin occur. We clarify the question, consider some of the answers given in the Christian tradition, and give a careful commentary on a few especially telling passages from the Christian Scriptures. We consider two philosophically informed interpretative strategies, one derived from the work of Frances Kamm, the other from Reformed scholasticism, against our interpretation of these passages. While we concede that in other passages such interpretations may allow a way of escaping our argument, we conclude that in the case of the telling passages we have selected there is simply no comparably plausible alternative interpretation.

Author Biographies

Matthew J. Hart, University of Liverpool

PhD candidate
Department of Philosophy
University of Liverpool

Daniel J. Hill, University of Liverpool

Senior Lecturer
Department of Philosophy
University of Liverpool


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How to Cite

Hart, Matthew J., and Daniel J. Hill. 2020. “Does God Intend That Sin Occur? We Affirm”. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (1):143-71.